Bay Scallops | Calico Scallops | Eastern Oysters | Hard Clams | Queen Conch |
Other Molluscs


Bay Scallop

Bert, T.M., W.S. Arnold, A.L. McMillen-Jackson, A.E. Wilbur, A.E., C. Crawford.  2011. Natural and anthropogenic forces shape the population genetics and recent evolutionary history of eastern United States bay scallops (Argopecten irradians). J. Shellfish Res. 30(3):583-608. Access Publication

Geiger, S.P., S.P. Stephenson, and W.S. Arnold. 2010. Protracted recruitment in the bay scallop Argopecten irradians in a west Florida estuary. J. Shellfish Res. 29(4):809-817.Access Publication

Leverone, J.R., S.P. Geiger, S.P. Stephenson, and W.S. Arnold. 2010. Increase in bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) populations following releases of competent larvae in two west Florida estuaries. J. Shellfish Res. 29(2):395-406. Access Publication

Arnold, W.S. 2009. The bay scallop, Argopecten irradians, in Florida coastal waters. Mar. Fish. Rev. 71(3):1-7.

Greenawalt, J.M., T.K. Frazer, C.A. Jacoby and W.S. Arnold. 2007. Mortality and exploitation rate estimates for the recreational bay scallop fishery off the Gulf Coast of Florida, USA. North American J. Fish. Manag. 27:1230-1242. Access Publication

Geiger, S.P., J. Cobb and W.S. Arnold. 2006. Variations in growth and reproduction of bay scallops (Argopecten irradians) (Lamark, 1819) from six subpopulations in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. J. Shellfish Res. 25:491-501. Access Publication

Arnold, W.S., N.J. Blake, M.H. Harrison, D.C. Marelli, M.L. Parker, S.C. Peters and D.E. Sweat. 2005. Restoration of bay scallop (Argopecten irradians (Lamarck)) populations in Florida coastal waters: Planting techniques and the growth, mortality and reproductive development of planted scallops. J. Shellfish Res. 24:883-904. Access Publication

Wilbur, A.E., S. Seyoum, T.M. Bert and W.S. Arnold. 2005. A genetic assessment of bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) restoration efforts in Florida's Gulf of Mexico coastal waters (USA). Cons. Gen. 6:111-122.

Seyoum, S., T.M. Bert, A. Wilbur, W.S. Arnold, and C. Crawford. 2003. Development, evaluation, and application of a mitochondrial DNA genetic tag for the bay scallop,Argopecten irradians. J. Shellfish Res. 22(1):111-117. Access Publication

Marelli, D.C., W.S. Arnold, C. Bray. 1999. Levels of recruitment and adult abundance in a collapsed population of bay scallops (Argopecten irradians) in Florida. J. Shellfish Res. 18(2):393-399. Access Publication

Arnold, W.S., D.C. Marelli, C. Bray, M.M. Harrision. 1998. Recruitment of bay scallopsArgopecten irradians in Floridan Gulf of Mexico waters: scales of coherence. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 170:143-157.


Calico Scallops

Arnold, W.S. 2000. Status report on the calico scallop (Argopecten gibbus) fishery in Florida. FWRI Inhouse Report Series IHR 2000-001. Access Report

Arnold, W.S. 1995. Summary report on the calico scallop (Argopecten gibbus) fishery of the Southeastern United States. FWRI Inhouse Report Series IHR 1995-003. Access Report

Krause, M.K., W.S. Arnold, and W.G. Ambrose Jr. 1994. Morphological and genetic variation among three populations of calico scallops, Argopecten gibbus. J. Shellfish Res. 13(2):529-537. Access Publication

Moyer, M.N., N.J. Blake, and W.S. Arnold. 1993. An ascetosporan disease causing mass mortality in the Atlantic calico scallop, Argopecten gibbus (Linnaeus, 1758). J. Shellfish Re. 12(2):305-310. Access Publication


Eastern Oysters

Tolley, S.G., A. Hurley, and R. Miner. 2013. Influence of freshwater inflow on reproductive capacity of the mud crab Eurypanopeus depressus inhabiting oyster reefs. Journal of Crustacian Biology 33(1):36-41. Access Publication

Buzzelli, C., M. Parker, S. Geiger, Y. Wan, P. Doering, and D. Haunert. 2012. Predicting System-Scale Impacts of Oyster Clearance on Phytoplankton Productivity in a Small Subtropical Estuary. Environmental Modeling and Assessment. Online First: 1-14. Access Publication

Volety, A.K., M. Savarese, S.G. Tolley, W.S. Arnold, P. Sime, P. Goodman, R. Chamberlain and P.H. Doering. 2009. Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) as an indicator for restoration of Everglades' ecosystems. Ecological Indicators. 9 (Supplement 1): S120-S136.

Ermgassen, P.S.E. zu, M.D. Spalding, P.Banks, B. Blake, L. Coen, B. Dumbauld, S. Geiger, J.H. Grabowski, R. Grizzle, M. Luckenbach, K. McGraw, B. Rodney, J. Ruesink, S. Powers, and R. Brumbaugh. 2012. Historical ecology with real numbers: Past and present extent and biomass of an imperilled estuarine ecosystem. Proc. Royal Acad. Lond., B.


Hard Clams

Arnold, W.S., S.P. Geiger and S.P. Stephenson. 2009. Mercenaria mercenariaintroductions into Florida USA waters: duration, not size of introduction, influences genetic outcomes. Aquat. Bio. 5:49-62.

Hitchcock, G.L., W.S. Arnold, M. Frischer, C. Kelble and R.W. Cowen. 2008. Short-term dispersal of an intentionally-released patch of larval Mercenaria in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. Bull Mar. Sci. 82(1):41-57. Access Publication

Surge, D., G. Kelly, W.S. Arnold, S.P. Geiger, A.E. Goewert, and K.J. Walker. 2008. Isotope sclerochronology of Mercenaria mercenariaM. campechiensis, and their natural hybrid form: Does genotype matter? Palaios. 23:559-565.

Arnold, W.S., G.L. Hitchcock, M.E. Frischer, R. Wanninkhof and Y.P. Sheng, 2005. Dispersal of an introduced larval cohort in a coastal lagoon. Limnol. Oceanogr. 50:587-597. Access Publication

Arnold, W.S., S.L. Walters, J.S. Fajans, S.C. Peters, and T.M. Bert. 2004. Influence of congeneric aquaculture on hard clam (Mercenaria spp.) population genetic structure. Aquaculture International. 12:139-160. Access Publication

Arnold, W.S., D.C. Marelli, M.L. Parker, P. Hoffman, M. Frischer, J. Scarpa. 2002. Enhancing hard clam (Mercenaria spp.) population density in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: A comparison of strategies to maintain the commercial fishery. J. Shellfish Res. 21(2):659-672. Access Publication

Arnold, W.S., T.M. Bert, I.R. Quitmyer, and D.S. Jones. 1998. Contemporaneous deposition of annual growth bands in Mercenaria mercenaria (Linnaeus) and Mercenaria campechiensis (Gmelin), and their natural hybrid forms. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 223:93-109. Access Publication

Marelli, D.C., and W.S. Arnold. 1996. Growth and mortality of transplanted juvenile hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria, in the northern Indian River lagoon, Florida. J. Shellfish Res. 15(3):709-713. Access Publication

Bert, T.M., D.M. Hesselman, W.S. Arnold, W.S. Moore, H. Cruz-Lopez, and D.C. Marelli. 1993. High frequency of gonadal neoplasia in a hard clam (Mercenaria spp.) hybrid zone. Mar. Biol. 117:97-104. Access Publication

W.S. Arnold, D.C. Marelli, T.M. Bert, D.S. Jones, and I.R. Quitmyer. 1991. Habitat-specific growth of hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria (L.) from the Indian River, Florida. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 147:245-265. Access Publication


Queen Conch

Appeldoorn, R.S., E.C. Gonzalez, R. Glazer, and M. Prada. 2011. Applying EBM to queen conch fisheries in the Caribbean. Pp. 177-186 in Fanning, L., R. Mahon, and P. McConney, eds. Towards ecosystem-based management in the wider Caribbean. MARE Publication Series No. 6. Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam. 425 p. 
Access Publication

Spade, D.J., R.J. Griffitt, L. Liu, N.J. Brown-Peterson, K.J. Kroll, A. Feswick, R.A. Glazer, D.S. Barber, and N.D. Denslow. 2010. Queen conch (Strombus gigas) testis regresses during the reproductive season at nearshore sites in the Florida Keys. Plos One, v.5 no.9, 13 pp. Access Publication

Delgado, G.A. and R.A. Glazer. 2007. Interactions between translocated and native queen conch Strombas gigas: evaluating a restoration strategy. Endangered Species Research, v.3, p.259-266. Access Publication

Glazer, R.A. 2005. A model for decoupling emigration from mortality in recapture surveys of slow-moving benthic marine gastropods. J. Shellfish Res. 24(2):387-392. Access Publication

Delgado, G.A., C.T. Bartels, R.A. Glazer, N.J Brown-Peterson, and K.J. McCarthy. 2004. Translocation as a strategy to rehabilitate the queen conch (Strombus gigas) population in the Florida Keys. Fishery Bulletin, v.102, p.278-288. Access Publication

Glazer, R.A. and J.A. Kidney. 2004. Habitat associations of adult queen conch (Strombus gigas L.) in an unfished Florida Keys back reef: applications to essential fish habitat. Bulletin of Marine Science, v.75 no.2, p.205-224. Access Publication

Glazer, R., G.A. Delgado, and J.A. Kidney. 2003. Estimating queen conch (Strombus gigas) home ranges using acoustic telemetry: implications for the design of marine fishery reserves. Gulf and Caribbean Research, v.14 no.2, p.79-89. Access Publication


Other Molluscs

Stephenson, S.P., N.E. Sheridan, S.P. Geiger, and W.S. Arnold. 2013. Abundance and distribution of large marine gastropods in nearshore seagras beds along the gulf coast of Florida. J. Shellfish Res. Access Publication.

Cobb, J.C., S.P. Stephenson, W.S. Arnold. 2011. Reproductive cycle and recruitment patterns of the coquina clam Donax variabilis Say along the central Gulf of Mexico coast of Florida. J. Shellfish Res. 30(1):25-34. Access Publication

Geiger, S.P., C.R. Crawford, S.P. Stephenson, T. Kanaszka, and A. Machniak. 2010. Commercially or Recreationally Important Invertebrates in Tampa Bay. Pages 219-232 in Cooper, S.T. (ed.). Proceedings, Tampa Bay Area Scientific Information Symposium, BASIS 5: 20-23 October 2009, St. Petersburg, FL. 528 pp.

Joaquim, S., D. Matias, B. Lopes, W.S. Arnold and M. Gaspar. 2009. The reproductive cycle of the white clam Spisula solida (L.)(Mollusca: Bivalvia): Implications for aquaculture and wild stock management. Aquaculture 281:43-48.

Arnold, W.S. 2008. Application of larval release for restocking and stock enhancement of coastal marine bivalve populations. Rev. Fish. Sci. 16(1-3):65-71. Access Publication

Joaquim, S., M. Gaspar, D. Matias, A. Leitao, R. Ben-Hamadou and W.S. Arnold. 2008. Rebuilding viable spanner patches of the overfished Spisula solida (Mollusca: Bivalvia): A preliminary contribution to fishery sustainability. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 65:60-64.

Baker, P., J.S. Fajans, W.S. Arnold, D. Ingrao, D. Marelli and S.M. Baker. 2007. Range and dispersal of a tropical marine invader, the Asian green mussel, Perna viridis, in subtropical waters of the southeastern United States. J. Shellfish Res. 26(2):345-355.

Dukeman, A.K., N.J. Blake and W.S. Arnold. 2005. The reproductive cycle of the flame scallop, Ctenoides scaber (Born 1778), from the lower Florida Keys and its relationship with environmental conditions. J. Shellfish Res. 24:341-351.

FWC Facts:
Sawfish look like sharks but are actually a type of ray. Their gill slits are on the bottom of their bodies, like stingrays.

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