Smooth billed Ani (Crotophaga ani)

Petition Status - Complete. Does not warrant listing

The FWC received a petition to add the Smooth-billed ani to the list of Endangered, Threatened and Species of Special Concern in 2005.  Following the guidance of rule 68A-27.0012, this petition was reviewed for completeness in the summer of 2005.  The original petition was returned to the petitioner with deficiencies clearly indicated.  A revised petition was submitted, and found to be complete.  All complete petitions and ongoing listing actions were discussed and prioritized for action at the February 2007 Commission meeting. The work plan for 2007-08 presented to Commission recommended deferring action on the ani petition until the Commission takes final action on the peregrine falcon petition.  The Commission approved recommendation.  In December 2007, the Commission directed staff to review the listing process and for all petitions (other than the bald eagle and peregrine falcon) to be worked on after the review was complete. In September 2010, the Commission approved revised listing rules which included a moratorium for two years after the effective date of the rule on new requests for listing or delisting. The revised listing rules became effective in November 2010. The Smooth-billed ani petition remained active but was on hold until the two year moratorium was lifted.

In 2016, staff reviewed the petition and conducted a biological vulnerability screening, per Rule 68A-27.0012, F.A.C.  The biological vulnerability screening assigns a biological score for thebiological variables as described in Millsap, B.A., J.A. Gore, D.E. Runde, and S.I. Cerulean. 1990. Setting Priorities for the Conservation of Fish and Wildlife Species in Florida. Wildlife Monographs 111, and as subsequently modified.  The biological score for the smooth billed ani is 14.7, well below the cutoff for further evaluation.

The smooth billed ani is at the edge of its range in Florida and has undergone expansion and subsequent contraction in the state over the past century.  The species has a large global population (over 20 million) and an extensive global range; current research indicates that there is movement between the Cuban and south Florida populations. The full literature review is included below.


Petition Adobe PDF

Literature Review Adobe PDF

FWC Facts:
Gulf sturgeon are considered anadromous, from the Greek, meaning fishes that travel back and forth between fresh and salt water.

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