Nonnatives - Rock Dove

Rock Dove - Columba livia

Florida's Exotic Wildlife. Species detail.

First year: 1966

Extirpated year:

Established status: Populations are confirmed breeding and apparently self-sustaining for 10 or more consecutive years.

Estimated Florida range: 67 counties  At least 10 years

Statewide trend: Stable

Threats to natives:  Droppings are unsightly and can be a health hazard where food and other materials can be contaminated. Control is costly. They carry diseases such as psittacosis, cryptococcal meningitis, histoplasmosis, toxoplasmosis, and encephalitis. Because they mostly inhabit urban areas little impact on native species is expected.

Species Account: Originally native to Africa, Europe and Asia, but populations in the United States are all derived from feral populations. This bird has been ubiquitous in American cities for generations, and its first appearance in Florida is unknown. It can be an annoyance in urban areas with its gregarious behavior and tendency to roost on buildings. It can provide a ready food source for birds of prey.


County First Year Extirpated Year Breeding status Notes
Northwest     At least 10 years  
North Central     At least 10 years  
Northeast     At least 10 years  
Southwest     At least 10 years  
South     At least 10 years  


James, F. C. 1997. Nonindigenous Birds. Pages 139-156 In Strangers Among Us: Impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida. (Simberloff,D., D. Schmitz, and E. Wilson, eds.) Island Press, Washington D.C.

Johnston, R. F. 1992. Rock Dove (Columbia livia) In The Birds of North America No. 13 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.) The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithological Union, Washington, D.C.

Pimental, D., L. Lach, R. Zuniga, and D. Morrison. 1999. Environmental and economic costs associated with non-indigenous species in the United States. Cornell University.

Stevenson, H. M., and B. H. Anderson. 1994. The birdlife of Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

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